Non-nutritive sweeteners are substances that provide sweet taste but contribute few or no calories. While non-nutritive sweeteners were, until recently, found primarily in reduced-calorie “diet” foods and beverages, they are now widely present in foods, medications, and personal care products as well as in a variety of foods and beverages not marketed for weight management. Several non-nutritive sweeteners (e.g. acesulfame-potassium, aspartame, saccharin, stevia, sucralose, etc.) are approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration. Whether they are helpful or harmful in the prevention and management of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases is controversial.